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Sir Patrick Vallance acknowledged there are fears that clamping down too hard on the spread of the virus through tight social distancing measures could see it return in the future.
Herd immunity is when enough people become resistant to a disease - through vaccination or previous exposure - that it can no longer significantly spread among the rest of the population.
With no vaccine available for Covid-19, herd immunity relies on enough people in the population becoming infected to lessen the impact of the disease.
Sir Patrick told Sky News that around 60% of the UK population will need to become infected with coronavirus in order for society to have herd immunity from future outbreaks.
Professor Beate Kampmann, director of the vaccine centre at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said the Government appears to be carrying out a two-pronged approach.
She said cocooning means that a "ring of immune people" protect the vulnerable people in the middle.
"If you cocoon the elderly and you increase herd immunity, then the spread of the virus in the community in a few months is going to be lower," she said.
Asking people to self-isolate at home for seven days if they are ill is a way of slowing down transmission and "flattening the curve", she said.
But she added that she believes those at most risk of severe illness - such as those with serious underlying health conditions - should already be practising self-isolation.
"The people who are not as vulnerable will be the first to acquire immunity I expect, but that will never be 100%," she added.
"Allowing free spread to nursing homes and so on would be a disaster."
AC2 Player RIP Final Death Jan 31st 2017
Refugee of Auberean
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I couldn't have said it better.
Government official: Coronavirus vaccine trial starts Monday
WASHINGTON (AP) — A clinical trial evaluating a vaccine designed to protect against the new coronavirus will begin Monday, according to a government official.
The first participant in the trial will receive the experimental vaccine on Monday, the official said, speaking on the condition of anonymity because the trial has not been publicly announced yet. The National Institutes of Health is funding the trial, which is taking place at the Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute in Seattle, the official said.
Public health officials say it will take a year to 18 months to fully validate any potential vaccine.
Testing will begin with 45 young, healthy volunteers with different doses of shots co-developed by NIH and Moderna Inc. There’s no chance participants could get infected from the shots, because they don’t contain the virus itself. The goal is purely to check that the vaccines show no worrisome side effects, setting the stage for larger tests.
Wuhan ([ù.xân] (listen); simplified Chinese: 武汉; traditional Chinese: 武漢) is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
It is the largest city in Hubei and the most populous city in Central China, with a population of over 11 million, the ninth most populous Chinese city, and one of the nine National Central Cities of China. The name "Wuhan" came from the city's historical origin from the conglomeration of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang, which are collectively known as the "Three Towns of Wuhan" (武汉三镇). It lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain, on the confluence of the Yangtze River and its largest tributary, the Han River, and is known as "Nine Provinces' Thoroughfare" (九省通衢).
Historical events taking place in Wuhan include the Wuchang Uprising, which led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China. Wuhan was briefly the capital of China in 1927 under the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT) government led by Wang Jingwei. The city later served as the wartime capital of China in 1937 for ten months during the Second Sino-Japanese War. As of early 2020, outside China, Wuhan is most widely recognized as the origin of outbreak of the worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, or coronavirus. The city has been under lockdown since January 2020 as a result of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.[25
Wuhan today is considered the political, economic, financial, commercial, cultural and educational center of Central China.
It is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and
expressways passing through the city and connecting to other major
cities. Because of its key role in domestic transportation, Wuhan is sometimes referred to as "the Chicago of China" by foreign sources. The "Golden Waterway" of the Yangtze River and its largest tributary, the Han River, traverse the urban area and divides Wuhan into the three districts of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang. The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge crosses the Yangtze in the city. The Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity, is located nearby. Historically, Wuhan has suffered risks of flooding, prompting the government to alleviate the situation by introducing ecologically friendly absorption mechanisms.
Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that can be mild, such as some cases of the common cold (among other possible causes, predominantly rhinoviruses), and others that can be lethal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Symptoms in other species vary: in chickens, they cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. There are yet to be vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.
Coronaviruses constitute the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria. They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases, the largest among known RNA viruses. The name coronavirus is derived from the Latin corona, meaning "crown" or "halo", which refers to the characteristic appearance reminiscent of a crown or a solar corona around the virions (virus particles) when viewed under two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy, due to the surface covering in club-shaped protein spikes.
Human coronaviruses were first discovered in the late 1960s. The earliest ones discovered were an infectious bronchitis virus in chickens and two in human patients with the common cold (later named human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43). Other members of this family have since been identified, including SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV NL63 in 2004, HKU1 in 2005, MERS-CoV in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 (formerly known as 2019-nCoV) in 2019. Most of these have involved serious respiratory tract infections.
Human to human transmission of coronaviruses is primarily thought to occur among close contacts via respiratory droplets generated by sneezing and coughing. The interaction of the coronavirus spike protein with its complement host cell receptor is central in determining the tissue tropism, infectivity, and species range of the virus. The SARS coronavirus, for example, infects human cells by attaching to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor.
Although those infected with the virus may be asymptomatic, many develop flu-like symptoms, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath.
Emergency symptoms include difficulty breathing, persistent chest pain
or pressure, confusion, difficulty waking, and bluish face or lips;
immediate medical attention is advised if these symptoms are present. Less commonly, upper respiratory symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, or sore throat may be seen. Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
have been observed in varying percentages among people in several
studies, with percentages varying from 3% to 31% of cases depending on
the study. Some initial cases in China presented only chest tightness and palpitations. In some, the disease may progress to pneumonia, multi-organ failure, and death.
The disease is caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously referred to as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). It is primarily spread between people via respiratory droplets from coughs and sneezes.
A study investigating the rate of decay of the virus found no live
viruses after 4 h on copper, 24 h on cardboard, 72 h on stainless steel,
and 72 h on plastic. However, detection rates did not reach 100% and
varied between surface type (limit of detection was 3.33×100.5 TCID50 per liter of air for aerosols, 100.5 TCID50 per milliliter of medium for plastic, steel, and cardboard, and 101.5 TCID50
per milliliter of medium for copper). Estimation of the rate of decay
with a Bayesian regression model suggests that viruses may live up to 18
h on copper, 55 h on cardboard, 90 h on stainless steel, and over 100 h
on plastic. The virus remained alive in aerosols throughout the time of
the experiment (3 h). The virus has also been found in faeces, and transmission through faeces is being researched.
The lungs are the organs most affected by COVID-19 because the virus accesses host cells via the enzyme ACE2, which is most abundant in the type II alveolar cells of the lungs. The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein called a "spike" (peplomer) to connect to ACE2 and enter the host cell.
The density of ACE2 in each tissue correlates with the severity of the
disease in that tissue and some have suggested that decreasing ACE2
activity might be protective, though another view is that increasing ACE2 using Angiotensin II receptor blocker medications could be protective and that these hypotheses need to be tested. As the alveolar disease progresses, respiratory failure might develop and death may follow.
The virus also affects gastrointestinal organs as ACE2 is abundantly expressed in the glandular cells of gastric, duodenal and rectal epithelium as well as endothelial cells and enterocytes of the small intestine. The virus has been found in the faeces of as many as 53% of hospitalised people and more anal swab positives have been found than oral swab positives in the later stages of infection.
Duration time of positive stool ranged from 1 to 12 days and 17% of
people remained positive in stool after showing negative in respiratory
samples indicating that the viral gastrointestinal infection and the
potential fecal-oral transmission can last even after viral clearance in
Reoccurrence of the virus has also been detected through anal swabs
suggesting a shift from more oral positive during the early stages of
the disease to more anal positive during later periods.
SARS-CoV-2 has close genetic similarity to bat coronaviruses, from which it likely originated. An intermediate animal reservoir such as a pangolin is also thought to be involved in its introduction to humans. From a taxonomic perspective, SARS-CoV-2 is classified as a strain of the species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV).
The strain was first discovered in Wuhan, China, so it has sometimes been referred to as the "Wuhan virus" or "Wuhan coronavirus". Because the World Health Organization discourages the use of names based upon locations and to avoid confusion with the disease SARS,
it sometimes refers to the virus as "the virus responsible for
COVID-19" or "the COVID-19 virus" in public health communications.
Both the virus and the disease are often called "coronavirus" by the
general public, but scientists and most journalists typically use more
Human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Transmission occurs primarily via respiratory droplets from coughs and sneezes within a range of about 2 metres (6 ft 7 in). Indirect contact via contaminated surfaces is another possible cause of infection.
Preliminary research indicates that the virus may remain viable on
plastic and steel for up to three days, but does not survive on
cardboard for more than one day or on copper for more than four hours, and is inactivated by soap. Viral RNA has also been found in stool samples from infected people.
Whether the virus is infectious during the incubation period is uncertain. On 1 February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) indicated that "transmission from asymptomatic cases is likely not a major driver of transmission". However, an epidemiological model of the beginning of the outbreak in China suggested that "pre-symptomatic shedding may be typical among documented infections" and that subclinical infections may have been the source of a majority of infections.
The first known infections from the SARS-CoV-2 strain were discovered in Wuhan, China. The original source of viral transmission to humans and when the strain became pathogenic remains unclear. Research into the natural reservoir of the virus strain that caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak has resulted in the discovery of many SARS-like bat coronaviruses, most originating in the Rhinolophus genus of horseshoe bats, and two viral nucleic acid sequences found in samples taken from Rhinolophus sinicus show a resemblance of 80% to SARS-CoV-2. A third viral nucleic acid sequence from Rhinolophus affinis, collected in Yunnan province and designated RaTG13, has a 96% resemblance to SARS-CoV-2. The WHO considers bats the most likely natural reservoir of SARS-CoV-2, but differences between the bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 suggest that humans were infected via an intermediate host.
A metagenomic study published in 2019 previously revealed that SARS-CoV, the strain of the virus that causes SARS, was the most widely distributed coronavirus among a sample of Sunda pangolins. On 7 February 2020, it was announced that researchers from Guangzhou had discovered a pangolin sample with a viral nucleic acid sequence "99% identical" to SARS-CoV-2.
When released, the results clarified that "the receptor-binding domain
of the S protein of the newly discovered Pangolin-CoV is virtually
identical to that of 2019-nCoV, with one amino acid difference." Pangolins are protected under Chinese law, but their poaching and trading for use in traditional Chinese medicine remains common.
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). It is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.
Like the SARS-related coronavirus strain implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage . Its RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length.
SARS-CoV-2 is unique among known betacoronaviruses in its incorporation
of a polybasic cleavage site, a characteristic known to increase pathogenicity and transmissibility in other viruses.
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose. The throat, sinuses, and larynx may also be affected. Signs and symptoms may appear less than two days after exposure to the virus. These may include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, headache, and fever. People usually recover in seven to ten days, but some symptoms may last up to three weeks. Occasionally those with other health problems may develop pneumonia.
Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in causing the common cold, with rhinoviruses being the most common.
They spread through the air during close contact with infected people
or indirectly through contact with objects in the environment, followed
by transfer to the mouth or nose. Risk factors include going to child care facilities, not sleeping well, and psychological stress. The symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. The symptoms of influenza are similar to those of a cold, although usually more severe and less likely to include a runny nose.
There is no vaccine for the common cold. The primary methods of prevention are handwashing; not touching the eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands; and staying away from sick people. Some evidence supports the use of face masks. There is also no cure, but the symptoms can be treated. Zinc may reduce the duration and severity of symptoms if started shortly after the onset of symptoms. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen may help with pain. Antibiotics, however, should not be used and there is no good evidence for cough medicines.
Up until the 21st century, Wuhan was largely an agricultural region. Since 2004 it has been a focal point of the Rise of Central China Plan, which aims to build less-developed inland economies into hubs of advanced manufacturing.
Since 1890, the steel industry has been the backbone of Wuhan's industry. In 2010, automobile industry exceeded GDP for Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation
(WISCO) steel for the first time. There are 5 car manufacturers,
including Dongfeng Honda, Citroen, Shanghai GM, DFM Passenger Vehicle
and Dongfeng Renault. Dongfeng-Citroen Automobile Co., Ltd is
headquartered in the city.
As of 2016, Wuhan has attracted foreign investment from over 80
countries, with 5,973 foreign-invested enterprises established in the
city with a total capital injection of $22.45 billion USD. Among these, about 50 French companies including Renault and PSA Group
have operations in the city, representing over one third of French
investment in China, and the highest level of French investment in any
Major industrial zones in Wuhan include in chronological order:
Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993.
Its current zone size is about 10–25 square km and it plans to expand
to 25–50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan Economic and
Technological Development Zone include Auto-mobile Production/Assembly,
Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing,
Food/Beverage Processing, Heavy Industry, and Telecommunications
Wuhan Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located
in Wuhan Economic and Technology Development Zone, planned to cover 2.7
square kilometers (1.0 square mile) of land. The first
0.7-square-kilometer (0.3-square-mile) area has already been created.
Wuhan Donghu New Technology Development Zone is a national level
high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and
equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan East Lake
High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and
electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production
center for optoelectronic products with key players like Yangtze Optical
Fiber and Cable, (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), and Fiberhome Telecommunications.
Wuhan Donghu New Technology Development Zone also represents the
development center for China's laser industry with key players such as
HG Tech and Chutian Laser being based in the zone.
Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is located in Wuhan Donghu New Technology Development Zone.
Wuhan Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake
High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd.
The planned area is 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 square miles) with
total floor area of 6,000,000 square meters (65,000,000 square feet).
The zone is 8.5 km (5.28 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and is
46.7 km (29.02 mi) away from the Wuhan Tianhe Airport.
China Railway Wuhan Group manages the Wuhan Railway Hub. Wuhan Railway Hub is considered one of the four key railway hubs of China. The city of Wuhan is served by three major railway stations: the Hankou Railway Station in Hankou, the Wuchang Railway Station in Wuchang, and the Wuhan Railway Station, located in a newly developed area east of the East Lake (Hongshan District).
As the stations are many miles apart, it is important for passengers to
be aware of the particular station(s) used by a particular train.
The (original) Hankou Station was the terminus for the Jinghan Railway from Beijing, while the Wuchang Station was the terminus for the Yuehan Railway to Guangzhou. Since the construction of the First Yangtze Bridge and the linking of the two lines into the Jingguang Railway,
both Hankou and Wuchang stations have been served by trains going to
all directions, which contrasts with the situation in such cities as New
York or Moscow, where different stations serve different directions.
There are 35 higher educational institutions in Wuhan, making it a
leading educational hub for China. Prominent institutions include Huazhong University of Science and Technology and Wuhan University.
Three state-level development zones and many enterprise incubators are
also significant in Wuhan's education and business development. Wuhan
ranks third in China in overall strength of science and technology.
As of the end of 2013, in Wuhan there were 1,024 kindergartens
with 224,300 children, 590 primary schools with 424,000 students, 369
general high schools with 314,000 students, 105 secondary vocational and
technical schools with 98,600 students, and 80 colleges and
universities with 966,400 undergraduates and junior college students and
107,400 postgraduate students. There are several international schools in Wuhan.
Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), located in the Optics Valley of China near East Lake, is a Project 985 and Class A Double First Class University.
HUST manages Wuhan National Laboratories for Opto-electronics (WNLO),
which is one of the five national laboratories in China. HUST is also
one of four Chinese universities eligible to run the national laboratory
and the national major science and technology infrastructure. Founded
in 1953 as Huazhong Institute of Technology, it combined with three
other universities (including former Tongji Medical University founded
in 1907) in 2000 to form the new HUST, and has 42 schools and
departments covering 12 comprehensive disciplines. HUST has 12 Fellows of Chinese Academy of Sciences and 17 Fellows of Chinese Academy of Engineering. U.S. News' 2019 U.S. News & World Report ranked HUST as 260th in the world, and 9th in China. More than 2,000 international students from 120 countries pursue degrees at HUST.
Wuhan contains three national development zones and four scientific
and technological development parks, as well as numerous enterprise
incubators, over 350 research institutes, 1470 high-tech enterprises,
and over 400,000 experts and technicians.
Founded in 1958, the Wuhan Branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences
is one of the twelve national branches of CAS. It is composed of 9
independent organizations, including the headquarters at Xiaohongshan,
Wuchang. It has had a staff of 3,900, among which 8 are CAS fellows, and
one is a Chinese Academy of Engineering fellow. As of 2013, the achievements gained by WHB had won 23 National Awards and 778 Provincial Awards.
Wuhan Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (now known as
FiberHome Technologies Group) is the national center for optical
communication research in China, and is where the first optical fiber in the country was produced.
Wuhan University of Technology
is another major national university in the area. Founded in the year
2000, it was merged from three major universities, Wuhan University of
Technology (established in 1948), Wuhan Transportation University
(established in 1946) and Wuhan Automotive Polytechnic University
(established in 1958). Wuhan University of Technology is one of the
leading Chinese universities accredited by the Ministry of Education and
one of the universities constructed with priority by "State Project
211" for Chinese higher education institutions. The University has three
main campuses located in the Wuchang District.
Australian aborigines (Kooris) have always maintained that the
British deliberately spread smallpox in 1789, but this possibility has
only been raised by historians from the 1980s
when Dr Noel Butlin suggested; “there are some possibilities that ...
disease could have been used deliberately as an exterminating agent”.
“The US has finally acknowledged that among those who had died of the
influenza previously were cases of the coronavirus. The true source of
the virus was the US!” one commentator said. “The US owes the world,
especially China, an apology,” another said. “American coronavirus,” one
The theory has gained traction over the past few weeks, after a
respected epidemiologist Zhong Nanshan, said in a passing remark at a
press conference on 27 February that although the virus first appeared
in China “it may not have originated in China”.
The U.S. debt to China is $1.07 trillion as of December 2019.1 That's 16% of the $6.7 trillion in Treasury bills, notes, and bonds held by foreign countries. The rest of the $23 trillion national debt is owned by either the American people or by the U.S. government itself.
China has the second-greatest amount of U.S. debt held by a foreign
country. Japan rose to first place in June 2019. As of December 2019, it
owned $1.15 trillion. It's followed by the United Kingdom at $332.6
billion, Brazil at $281.9 billion, and Ireland at $281.8 billion.
The map below shows a breakdown of the top five countries owning U.S.
debt. Combined, they hold 76.5% of U.S. debt held by foreign countries.