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The Plague of Justinian (541–542 AD) was a pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and especially its capital, Constantinople, as well as the Sasanian Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea,
as merchant ships harbored rats that carried fleas infected with
plague. One of the deadliest plagues in history, the devastating
pandemic resulted in the deaths of an estimated 25–50 million people
during two centuries of recurrence, a death toll equivalent to 13–26% of
the world's population at the time of the first outbreak. The plague's social and cultural impact has been compared to that of the similar Black Death that devastated Europe in the Middle Ages, 600 years after the last outbreak of Justinian's plague.
In 2013, researchers confirmed earlier speculation that the cause of the Plague of Justinian was Yersinia pestis, the same bacterium responsible for Black Plague (1347–1351), which was much shorter, but still killed an estimated one-third to one-half of Europeans. Ancient and modern Yersinia pestis strains closely related to the ancestor of the Justinian plague strain have been found in Tian Shan, a system of mountain ranges on the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and China, suggesting that the Justinian plague may have originated in or near that region.
"Bahram V (Middle Persian: ?????? Wahrām), also known as Bahram Gor (Persian: بهرام گور, "Bahram the onager") was the fifteenth king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire, ruling from 420 to 438.
The son of Yazdegerd I, Bahram was exiled at an early age to the Lahkmid court in al-Hira, where he was raised under the tutolage of the Lakhmid kings. After the assassination of Yazdegerd I, Bahram hurried to the Sasanian capital of Ctesiphon
with a Lakhmid army, and won the favour of the nobles and priests,
according to a long-existing popular legend, after withstanding a trial
against two lions.
The term "Merovingian" comes from medieval Latin Merovingi or Merohingi ("sons of Merovech"), an alteration of an unattested Frankish form, akin to their dynasty's Old English name Merewīowing, with the final -ing being a typical Germanic patronymic suffix. The name derives from the possibly legendary King Merovech. Unlike the Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies, the Merovingians never claimed descent from a god, nor is there evidence that they were regarded as sacred.
the first year of King Belshazzar of Babylon, Daniel had a dream and
visions of his head as he lay in bed. Then he wrote down the dream:[a] 2 I,[b] Daniel, saw in my vision by night the four winds of heaven stirring up the great sea, 3 and four great beasts came up out of the sea, different from one another. 4 The
first was like a lion and had eagles’ wings. Then, as I watched, its
wings were plucked off, and it was lifted up from the ground and made to
stand on two feet like a human being; and a human mind was given to it.
5 Another beast appeared, a second one, that looked like a bear. It was raised up on one side, had three tusks[c] in its mouth among its teeth and was told, “Arise, devour many bodies!” 6 After
this, as I watched, another appeared, like a leopard. The beast had
four wings of a bird on its back and four heads; and dominion was given
to it. 7 After
this I saw in the visions by night a fourth beast, terrifying and
dreadful and exceedingly strong. It had great iron teeth and was
devouring, breaking in pieces, and stamping what was left with its feet.
It was different from all the beasts that preceded it, and it had ten
horns. 8 I
was considering the horns, when another horn appeared, a little one
coming up among them; to make room for it, three of the earlier horns
were plucked up by the roots. There were eyes like human eyes in this
horn, and a mouth speaking arrogantly.
9 As I watched,thrones were set in place, and an Ancient One[d] took his throne,his clothing was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool;his throne was fiery flames, and its wheels were burning fire.10 A stream of fire issued and flowed out from his presence.A thousand thousands served him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood attending him.The court sat in judgment, and the books were opened.
watched then because of the noise of the arrogant words that the horn
was speaking. And as I watched, the beast was put to death, and its body
destroyed and given over to be burned with fire. 12 As for the rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away, but their lives were prolonged for a season and a time. 13 As I watched in the night visions,
I saw one like a human being[e] coming with the clouds of heaven.And he came to the Ancient One[f] and was presented before him.14 To him was given dominion and glory and kingship,that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him.His dominion is an everlasting dominion that shall not pass away,and his kingship is one that shall never be destroyed.
15 As for me, Daniel, my spirit was troubled within me,[g] and the visions of my head terrified me. 16 I
approached one of the attendants to ask him the truth concerning all
this. So he said that he would disclose to me the interpretation of the
matter: 17 “As for these four great beasts, four kings shall arise out of the earth. 18 But the holy ones of the Most High shall receive the kingdom and possess the kingdom forever—forever and ever.”
I desired to know the truth concerning the fourth beast, which was
different from all the rest, exceedingly terrifying, with its teeth of
iron and claws of bronze, and which devoured and broke in pieces, and
stamped what was left with its feet; 20 and
concerning the ten horns that were on its head, and concerning the
other horn, which came up and to make room for which three of them fell
out—the horn that had eyes and a mouth that spoke arrogantly, and that
seemed greater than the others. 21 As I looked, this horn made war with the holy ones and was prevailing over them, 22 until the Ancient One[h]
came; then judgment was given for the holy ones of the Most High, and
the time arrived when the holy ones gained possession of the kingdom.
I saw the Lamb open one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four
living creatures call out, as with a voice of thunder, “Come!”[a] 2 I looked, and there was a white horse! Its rider had a bow; a crown was given to him, and he came out conquering and to conquer.
3 When he opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature call out, “Come!”[b] 4 And out came[c]
another horse, bright red; its rider was permitted to take peace from
the earth, so that people would slaughter one another; and he was given a
5 When he opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature call out, “Come!”[d] I looked, and there was a black horse! Its rider held a pair of scales in his hand, 6 and I heard what seemed to be a voice in the midst of the four living creatures saying, “A quart of wheat for a day’s pay,[e] and three quarts of barley for a day’s pay,[f] but do not damage the olive oil and the wine!”
7 When he opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature call out, “Come!”[g] 8 I
looked and there was a pale green horse! Its rider’s name was Death,
and Hades followed with him; they were given authority over a fourth of
the earth, to kill with sword, famine, and pestilence, and by the wild
animals of the earth.
"The Four Perils (Chinese: 四凶; pinyin: Sì Xiōng) are four malevolent beings that existed in Chinese mythology, and the antagonistic counterparts of the Four Benevolent Animals."
"APART from protectors and god-like creatures, there are also
evil-beings in Chinese myths. Si Xiong, or the Four Evils, are one of
the most famous.
The Four Evils are Tao Tie饕餮, Hun Dun混沌, Qiong Qi穷奇 and Tao Wu梼杌.
Each holds evil characteristics such as encouraging greed, distorting
truth, and making wars. The evil beasts’ names are still often referred
to as metaphors out of superstition.
Some legends suggest the four evils were born from four evil and
rebellious tribe leaders after they died in ancient times: San Miao三苗,
Huan Dou驩兜, Gong Gong共工 and Gun鲧. They ruled in the reign of the Shun
Emperor 舜帝, who was defeated and exiled in the end. But there are many
other stories of the origins of the beasts."
"Yi, Man, Rong, and Di were further generalized into compounds (such as Róngdí, Mányí, and Mányíróngdí)
denoting "non-Chinese; foreigners; barbarians." Hieroglyphics refer to
these groups all have a section for indicating "animal/insect".
Nowadays, Chinese characters have omitted this symbolic section, so the
Chinese characters quoted above only have the "dog symbol" 犭 in the word Dí 狄.
The Yi ("Barbarian") had both specific denotations (e.g., Huaiyi 淮夷 "Huai River barbarians" and Xiyi 西夷 "western barbarians") and generalized references to "barbarian" (e.g., Sìyí "Four Barbarians"). The sinologist Edwin G. Pulleyblank (1983: 440) says the name Yi
"furnished the primary Chinese term for 'barbarian'," but
"Paradoxically the Yi were considered the most civilized of the
The Old Chinese pronunciation of Modern Chinese yí 夷 is reconstructed as *dyər (Bernhard Karlgren), *ɤier (Zhou Fagao), *ləj (William H. Baxter), and *l(ə)i (Axel Schuessler). Schuessler (2007: 563) defines Yi
as "The name of non-Chinese tribes, prob[ably] Austroasiatic, to the
east and southeast of the central plain (Shandong, Huái River basin),
since the Spring and Autumn period also a general word for 'barbarian'",
and proposes a "sea" etymology, "Since the ancient Yuè (=Viet) word for
'sea' is said to have been yí, the people's name might have originated as referring to people living by the sea"."
1 God has taken his place in the divine council; in the midst of the gods he holds judgment:2 “How long will you judge unjustly and show partiality to the wicked?Selah3 Give justice to the weak and the orphan; maintain the right of the lowly and the destitute.4 Rescue the weak and the needy; deliver them from the hand of the wicked.”
5 They have neither knowledge nor understanding, they walk around in darkness; all the foundations of the earth are shaken.
6 I say, “You are gods, children of the Most High, all of you;7 nevertheless, you shall die like mortals, and fall like any prince.”[a]
8 Rise up, O God, judge the earth; for all the nations belong to you!
27 Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast.
it shall come to pass, that like as I have watched over them, to pluck
up, and to break down, and to throw down, and to destroy, and to
afflict; so will I watch over them, to build, and to plant, saith the Lord.
29 In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten a sour grape, and the children's teeth are set on edge.
30 But every one shall die for his own iniquity: every man that eateth the sour grape, his teeth shall be set on edge.
31 Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:
according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day
that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt;
which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith
33 But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people.
34 And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the Lord: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.
Dara is a name with more than one origin.
Dara is a gotra (clan) of certain Jats and Punjabis found in India. Members of the Dara gotra are found mainly in Rajasthan (majority), Delhi and Haryana in India. Dara mostly belong to the Khatri caste.
Darius ascended the throne by overthrowing Gaumata,
a claimed usurper. The new king met with rebellions throughout his
kingdom and quelled them each time. A major event in Darius's life was
his expedition to punish Athens and Eretria for their aid in the Ionian Revolt and subjugate Greece. Although ultimately ending in failure at the Battle of Marathon, Darius succeeded in the re-subjugation of Thrace, expansion of the empire through the conquest of Macedon, the Cyclades and the island of Naxos and the sacking of the city of Eretria.
Darius organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing satraps to govern it. He organized Achaemenid coinage as a new uniform monetary system, along with making Aramaic
the official language of the empire. He also put the empire in better
standing by building roads and introducing standard weights and
measures. Through these changes, the empire was centralized and unified. Darius also worked on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing on Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Babylon, and Egypt. He had the cliff-face Behistun Inscription carved to record his conquests, an important testimony of the Old Persian language.
Darius is mentioned in the biblical books of Haggai, Zechariah, and Ezra–Nehemiah.
Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages
Javan (Hebrew יָוָן, Standard Hebrew Yavan, Tiberian Hebrew Yāwān) was the fourth son of Noah's son Japheth according to the "Generations of Noah" (Genesis chapter 10) in the Hebrew Bible. Josephus states the traditional belief that this individual was the ancestor of the Greeks.
Also serving as the Hebrew name for Greece or Greeks in general, יָוָן Yavan or Yāwān has long been considered cognate with the name of the eastern Greeks, the Ionians (Greek Ἴωνες Iōnes, Homeric Greek Ἰάονες Iáones; Mycenaean Greek *Ιαϝονες Iawones). The Greek race has been known by cognate names throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, Near East and beyond: see Sanskrit Yona & Sanskrit (यवन yavana) or proto Aryan languages Sanskrit probably originated. In Greek mythology, the eponymous forefather of the Ionians is similarly called Io, a son of Apollo. The opinion that Javan is synonymous with Greek Ion and thus fathered the Ionians is common to numerous writers of the early modern period including Sir Walter Raleigh, Samuel Bochart, John Mill and Jonathan Edwards, and is still frequently encountered today.