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Georges Dumézil's trifunctional hypothesis proposed that ancient Indo-European society conceived itself as structured around three activities: worship, war, and toil.
In later times, when slave labor became common, the three functions
came to be seen as separate "classes", represented each by its own god.
Dumézil understood this mythology as reflecting and validating social
structures in its content: such a tripartite class system is found in
ancient Indian, Iranian, Greek and Celtic texts. In 1970, Dumézil
proposed that some goddesses represented these three qualities as
different aspects or epithets and identified examples in his
interpretation of various deities including the Iranian Anāhitā, the Vedic Sarasvatī and the Roman Juno.
Qudshu-Astarte-Anat is a representation of a single goddess who is a combination of three goddesses: Qetesh (Athirat "Asherah"), Astarte, and Anat.
It was a common practice for Canaanites and Egyptians to merge
different deities through a process of syncretization, thereby, turning
them into one single entity. This "Triple Goddess Stone", once owned by
Winchester College, shows the goddess Qetesh with the inscription
"Qudshu-Astarte-Anat", showing their association as being one goddess,
and Qetesh (Qudshu) in place of Athirat.
The Roman goddess Diana was venerated from the late sixth century BC as diva triformis, "three-form goddess", and early on was conflated with the similarly-depicted Greek goddess Hekate. Andreas Alföldi
interpreted a late Republican numismatic image as Diana "conceived as a
threefold unity of the divine huntress, the Moon goddess and the
goddess of the nether world, Hekate". This coin shows that the triple goddess cult image still stood in the lucus of Nemi in 43 BC. The Lake of Nemi was Triviae lacus for Virgil (Aeneid 7.516), while Horace called Diana montium custos nemoremque virgo ("keeper of the mountains and virgin of Nemi") and diva triformis ("three-form goddess"). In his commentary on Virgil, Maurus Servius Honoratus said that the same goddess was called Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, and Proserpina in hell.
Spells and hymns in Greek magical papyri refer to the goddess (called Hecate, Persephone, and Selene,
among other names) as "triple-sounding, triple-headed,
triple-voiced..., triple-pointed, triple-faced, triple-necked". In one
hymn, for instance, the "Three-faced Selene" is simultaneously
identified as the three Charites, the three Moirai, and the three Erinyes; she is further addressed by the titles of several goddesses. Translation editor Hans Dieter Betz
notes: "The goddess Hekate, identical with Persephone, Selene, Artemis,
and the old Babylonian goddess Ereschigal, is one of the deities most
often invoked in the papyri."
E. Cobham Brewer's 1894 Dictionary of Phrase & Fable contained the entry, "Hecate: A triple deity, called Phoebe or the Moon in heaven, Diana on the earth, and Hecate or Proserpine in hell," and noted that "Chinese have the triple goddess Pussa". The Roman poet Ovid, through the character of the Greek woman Medea, refers to Hecate as "the triple Goddess"; the earlier Greek poet Hesiod represents her as a threefold goddess, with a share in earth, sea, and starry heavens.
Hecate was depicted variously as a single womanly form; as three women
back-to-back; as a three-headed woman, sometimes with the heads of
animals; or as three upper bodies of women springing from a single lower
body ("we see three heads and shoulders and six hands, but the lower
part of her body is single, and closely resembles that of the Ephesian
Carl Jung linked the figure of Sophia to the highest archetype of the anima in depth psychology.
The archetypal fall and recovery of Sophia is additionally linked (to a
varying degree) to many different myths and stories (see damsel in distress). Among these are:
The Pyramid Texts (c. 2400–2300 BC) describe the nature of the pharaoh
in different characters as both Horus and Osiris. The pharaoh as Horus
in life became the pharaoh as Osiris in death, where he was united with
the other gods. New incarnations of Horus succeeded the deceased pharaoh
on earth in the form of new pharaohs.
The lineage of Horus, the eventual product of unions between the children of Atum,
may have been a means to explain and justify pharaonic power. The gods
produced by Atum were all representative of cosmic and terrestrial
forces in Egyptian life. By identifying Horus as the offspring of these
forces, then identifying him with Atum himself, and finally identifying
the Pharaoh with Horus, the Pharaoh theologically had dominion over all
Horus was born to the goddess Isis after she retrieved all the
dismembered body parts of her murdered husband Osiris, except his penis, which was thrown into the Nile and eaten by a catfish, or sometimes depicted as instead by a crab, and according to Plutarch's account used her magic powers to resurrect Osiris and fashion a phallus to conceive her son (older Egyptian accounts have the penis of Osiris surviving).
After becoming pregnant with Horus, Isis fled to the Nile Delta marshlands to hide from her brother Set, who jealously killed Osiris and who she knew would want to kill their son. There Isis bore a divine son, Horus.
A True Story (Ancient Greek: Ἀληθῆ διηγήματα, Alēthē diēgēmata; Latin: Vera Historia or Latin: Verae Historiae) is a novel written in the second century AD by Lucian of Samosata, a Greek-speaking author of Assyrian descent. The novel is a satire of outlandish tales which had been reported in ancient sources, particularly those which presented fantastic or mythical events as if they were true. It is Lucian's best-known work.
It is the earliest known work of fiction to include travel to outer space, alien lifeforms, and interplanetary warfare. As such, A True Story has been described as "the first known text that could be called science fiction". However the work does not fit into typical literary genres: its multilayered plot and characters have been interpreted as science fiction, fantasy, satire or parody, and have been the subject of much scholarly debate.
The novel begins with an explanation that the story is not at all
"true" and that everything in it is, in fact, a complete and utter lie. The narrative begins with Lucian and his fellow travelers journeying out past the Pillars of Heracles. Blown off course by a storm, they come to an island with a river of wine filled with fish and bears, a marker indicating that Heracles and Dionysus have traveled to this point, and trees that look like women. Shortly after leaving the island, they are caught up by a whirlwind and taken to the Moon, where they find themselves embroiled in a full-scale war between the king of the Moon and the king of the Sun over colonization of the Morning Star. Both armies include bizarre hybrid lifeforms. The armies of the Sun win the war by clouding over the Moon and blocking out the Sun's light. Both parties then come to a peace agreement. Lucian then describes life on the Moon and how it is different from life on Earth.
The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (竹取物語 Taketori Monogatari) is a 10th-century Japanese monogatari (fictional prose narrative) containing Japanese folklore. It is considered the oldest extant Japanese prose narrative although the oldest manuscript dates to 1592.
The tale is also known as The Tale of Princess Kaguya (かぐや姫の物語 Kaguya-hime no Monogatari), after its protagonist. It primarily details the life of a mysterious girl called Kaguya, who was discovered as a baby inside the stalk of a glowing bamboo plant.
That summer, whenever Kaguya-hime saw the full moon, her eyes filled
with tears. Though her adoptive parents worried greatly and questioned
her, she was unable to tell them what was wrong. Her behaviour became
increasingly erratic until she revealed that she was not of this world
and must return to her people on the Moon. In some versions of this
tale, it is said that she was sent to the Earth, where she would
inevitably form material attachment, as a temporary punishment
for some crime, while in others, she was sent to Earth for her own
safety during a celestial war. The gold that Taketori no Okina had been
finding had in fact been a stipend from the people of the Moon, sent down to pay for Kaguya-hime's upkeep.
As the day of her return approached, the Emperor sent many guards
around her house to protect her from the Moon people, but when an
embassy of "Heavenly Beings" arrived at the door of Taketori no Okina's
house, the guards were blinded by a strange light. Kaguya-hime announced
that, though she loved her many friends on Earth, she must return with
the Moon people to her true home. She wrote sad notes of apology to her
parents and to the Emperor, then gave her parents her own robe as a
memento. She then took a little of the elixir of life,
attached it to her letter to the Emperor, and gave it to a guard
officer. As she handed it to him, her feather robe was placed on her
shoulders, and all of her sadness and compassion for the people of the
Earth were apparently forgotten. The heavenly entourage took Kaguya-hime
back to Tsuki no Miyako (月の都; lit. "the Capital of the Moon"), leaving her earthly foster parents in tears.
The parents became very sad and were soon put to bed sick. The
officer returned to the Emperor with the items Kaguya-hime had given him
as her last mortal act, and reported what had happened. The Emperor
read her letter and was overcome with sadness. He asked his servants,
"Which mountain is the closest place to Heaven?", to which one replied the Great Mountain of Suruga Province.
The Emperor ordered his men to take the letter to the summit of the
mountain and burn it, in the hope that his message would reach the
distant princess. The men were also commanded to burn the elixir of
immortality since the Emperor did not wish to live forever without being
able to see her. The legend has it that the word immortality, 不死 (fushi), became the name of the mountain, Mount Fuji. It is also said that the kanji
for the mountain, 富士山 (literally "Mountain Abounding with Warriors"),
are derived from the Emperor's army ascending the slopes of the mountain
to carry out his order. It is said that the smoke from the burning
still rises to this day. (In the past, Mount Fuji was much more
volcanically active and therefore produced more smoke.)
The hero discovers that these beings, who call themselves
Vril-ya, have great telepathic and other parapsychological abilities,
such as being able to transmit information, get rid of pain, and put others to sleep.
The narrator is offended by the idea that the Vril-ya are better
adapted to learn about him than he is to learn about them. Nevertheless,
the guide (who turns out to be a magistrate) and his son Taee behave
kindly towards him.
The narrator soon discovers that the Vril-ya are descendants of an antediluvian
civilization called the Ana, who live in networks of caverns linked by
tunnels. Originally surface dwellers, they fled underground thousands of
years ago to escape a massive flood and gained greater power by facing
and dominating the harsh conditions of the Earth. The place where the
narrator descended houses 12,000 families, one of the largest groups.
Their society is a technologically supported Utopia, chief among their
tools being an "all-permeating fluid" called "Vril", a latent source of
energy that the spiritually elevated hosts are able to master through
training of their will, to a degree that depends on their hereditary
constitution. This mastery gives them access to an extraordinary force
that can be controlled at will. It is this fluid that the Vril-ya employ
to communicate with the narrator. The powers of the Vril includes the
ability to heal, change, and destroy beings and things; the destructive
powers in particular are immense, allowing a few young Vril-ya children
to destroy entire cities if necessary.
"I did not mean Vril for mesmerism, but for electricity, developed
into uses as yet only dimly guessed, and including whatever there may be
genuine in mesmerism, which I hold to be a mere branch current of the
one great fluid pervading all nature. I am by no means, however, wedded
to Vril, if you can suggest anything else to carry out this meaning
namely, that the coming race, though akin to us, has nevertheless
acquired by hereditary transmission, etc., certain distinctions which
make it a different species, and contains powers which we could not
attain to through a slow growth of time; so that this race would not
amalgamate with, but destroy us. [...]
The Qlippoth is the Negative Form shell and/ or Imposter Spirit negative force of the Sephiroth, sends off the work to the rest of the Qlippoth, gives energy to the Qlippoth, the source of power and its force as in its Miasma, which acts as a generator of the same force. Simply, these are the Dead Light forces of the Shadow Self and their spiritual-energetic qualities.
The Adverse Sephiroth or the Qlippoth is the dimensional location that Fallen Angelics hierarchies and the Satanic and Luciferian forces exist. On the path of Ascension our goal is to face the Shadow Self
and the demons it associates, and to purify our body and consciousness
from its control over us. This is why we must not fear these lower
forces, but not give our power to them either, as they are tricksters
and deceivers. They are also known as the “Evil Demons of Matter and the
Shells of the Dead".
Thus, Judaism's Kabbalah and the Artificial Tree of Life is based on the inverted teachings intentionally given by the Thothian groups to generate reversals in the knowledge given in the original Founder Records, and this is overseen and administered by the Yahweh Collective located on Saturn. The Kabbalah esoteric information was brought through in pieces from distorted Patriarchal Melchizedek intelligence that had been captured and reverse engineered, through their original knowledge of the Universal Tree of Life and the quantum mechanics that are included in the 12 holographic plates of the Emerald Founder Records.
The nodes are usually represented as spheres called Sephiroth
and the lines are usually represented as paths. The nodes usually
represent encompassing aspects of existence, God, or the human
psyche.The lines usually represent the relationship between the concepts
ascribed to the spheres or a symbolic description of the requirements
to go from one sphere to another. The nodes are also associated to
deities, angels, celestial bodies, values, single colors or combinations
of them, and specific numbers. The columns are usually symbolized as
pillars. These pillars usually represent different kinds of values,
electric charges, or types of ceremonial magic.It is usually referred to
as the Kabbalistic tree of life in order to distinguish it from other
concepts with the same name.
In the Jewish Kabbalah, the nodes representing dimensional spheres are called Sephiroth.
The diagram is also used by Christian Cabbala, Hermetic Qabalah and
Theosophy. The diagram is believed to be derivable from the flower of
life. Kabbalistic experts state the tree represents a series of divine
emanations of God's creation itself ex nihilo (out of nothing), the
nature of revealed divinity, the human soul, and the spiritual path of
ascent by man. In this way, Kabbalists developed the symbol into a full
model of reality, using the tree to depict a map of creation.
From the Guardian perspective the Sephiroth, meaning emanations, are the 10 attributes of God as described in the Kabbalah Tree of Life, which is a part of the esoteric teaching of Judaism. Judaism's Kabbalah is based on the teachings given by the Yahweh Collective located on Saturn. The Kabbalah brought through pieces of Melchizedek intelligence through the knowledge of the Universal Tree of Life.
Due to patriarchal distortions brought through the hidden Negative
Alien invasion, the tree of life was disfigured to ten spheres instead
of the original mathematical base of twelve. The Kabbalah tree of life
represents the distorted 10D base code genetic blueprint of the black
sun regressive lineages. Melchizedeks
returning to the earth field at the end of the cycle, are attempting to
correct and rebuild the distorted Tree of Life back to its correct
formula base 12. Metatronic Reversal of the shadow body that is created from this distorted organizational template is called the Black Tree of Life. The 12 Tree Grid
is the base holographic instruction set that corrects the continuing
spiritual progression for all manifest forms to achieve ascension
through an evolving twelve dimensional body.
There are 12 Tribes which make up the entirety of the collective
human gene pool on this planet. This identity has had many lifetimes and
participated with the evolution cycles of the Root Races
throughout the astrological precessions. The genetic modification of
the 12 Human Tribes occurred when the assorted Aliens decided to have a
competing agenda on writing their genetic codes into the planetary brain and Stargate system, as well as intending Alien Hybridization on the earth.
By the time that Greek mythology
had reached the earliest stage that has survived for our study,
we find that there is already a bewildering array
of virgin goddesses.
Many of these goddesses were
eventually identified with each other, and said to be merely the same person
under different names; but others always remained distinct.
When we come to Roman times we
meet with many new names of goddess mothers, some of which are undoubtedly
synonyms for the earlier Greek divinities, though others are distinct from them.
Some of these were virgin mothers of mortals; others were ordinary mothers
of the immortals.
Among these Greek and Roman
names -- of which several are really
synonymous -- are Artemis, Iphigenia, Athena, Pallas, Here, Juno, Agdistis,
Cybele, and Rhea. The last-named is identifiable with Agdistis and with Cybele,
and was known as "The Mother of Zeus," "The Mother of the Gods," and "The Great
We need not consider here the
details of the myths connected with such goddesses we have not
already referred to, since it is with human mothers of "God" that we are
now more concerned with. We have already noted how familiar the ancients
were with miraculous birth stories.
It is not necessary in this
brief survey of the best-known miraculous birth stories, to refer to the births
of demi-gods and mortal heroes from mortal women and gods -- or from goddesses and
mortal men -- where such births were not miraculous in any other respect than as
being the result of a union between a mortal and an immortal.
But the fact that this title of
"The Mother of God," so familiar to the pagans, was transferred to the
Messiah's mother Mary should
not be overlooked. When in later years Catholics began to worship Mary as
"The Mother of God," it caused great scandal among those (many of them devout
Christians but convinced monotheists) to whom the notion of God having a
human mother, or indeed a mother of any kind, was most abhorrent.
As civilization advanced, the
new "Mother of God" was pictured as a more refined being than the old
"Mother of the god
In The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, one of the Dead Sea scrolls, Belial is the leader of the Sons of Darkness:
"You made Belial for the pit, angel of enmity; in
darkness is his domain, his counsel is to bring about wickedness and
guilt. All the spirits of his lot are angels of destruction, they walk
in the laws of darkness; towards it goes their only desire."
In the Rules of the Community, God is depicted as saying, "I
shall not comfort the oppressed until their path is perfect. I shall not
retain Belial within my heart."
Yemoja (Yoruba: Yemọja) is a major water deity from the Yoruba religion. She is an orisha. She is often syncretized with either Our Lady of Regla
in the afrocuban diaspora or various other Virgin Mary figures of the
Catholic Church, a practice that emerged during the era of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.
Yemoja is motherly and strongly protective, and cares deeply for all
her children, comforting them and cleansing them of sorrow. She is said
to be able to cure infertility in women, and cowrie shells represent her
wealth. She does not easily lose her temper, but when angered she can
be quite destructive and violent, as the flood waters of turbulent
Yemoja is often depicted as a mermaid, and is associated with the
moon (in some Diaspora
communities), water, and feminine mysteries. She is the protector of
women. She governs everything pertaining to women; childbirth,
conception, parenting, child safety, love, and healing. According to
myth, when her waters broke, it caused a great flood creating rivers and
streams and the first mortal humans were created from her womb.
-Coffea arabica is a hybrid, which appeared in Ethiopia. It’s
supposed “parents” (Coffea canephora or “Robusta” and Coffea
eugenioides) are not even from Ethiopia. Are we supposed to believe that
a west African coffee species flew by itself across a continent to mate with another species? Or was it flown there? And if then, by who? And why?
-Arabica is an allotetraploid. According to Biology Online,
“Allotetraploids are created as a result of both chromosome sets of
both parents being present in gametes.” To put it in layman’s terms,
this means arabica must be some kind of genetic mutant created by an
intelligent plant breeder.
-Coffee is uniquely suited to make humans better, more productive
workers. It stimulates the intellect and makes drinkers more alert while
promoting stamina. Coffee is an ancient, high technology performance
Coffee is impossibly complex. Professional tasters detect flavor
notes as disparate as Meyer Lemon, Night Blooming Jasmine, and Prosecco.
This is super-natural, nearly psychedelic flavor complexity, designed
to lure humans into a daily dosing ritual, just as it did for the lost
tribes of Sumer. It is impossible for flavor scientists to duplicate
coffee flavor by any process, and today we go to far ends of the world
to find the most complex and enchanting flavor expressions. But our
journeys to origin today pale in comparison to the galactic road walked
by the Anunnaki, whom, should they ever choose to return, I for one
would welcome as our new overlords.
Renaissance humanism was a response to what came to be depicted by later whig historians as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions. This was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatis, today known as the humanities: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy.
According to one scholar of the movement,
Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued
the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Ages, not merely
provided the old Trivium with a new and more ambitious name (Studia humanitatis),
but also increased its actual scope, content and significance in the
curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive
literary production. The studia humanitatis excluded logic, but they added to the traditional grammar and rhetoric not only history, Greek,
and moral philosophy, but also made poetry, once a sequel of grammar
and rhetoric, the most important member of the whole group.
Humanism was a pervasive cultural mode and not the program of a small
elite, a program to revive the cultural legacy, literary legacy, and
moral philosophy of classical antiquity. There were important centres of
humanism in Florence, Naples, Rome, Venice, Genoa, Mantua, Ferrara, and Urbino.
Some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscripts, including Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Coluccio Salutati, and Poggio Bracciolini.
Of the four, Petrarch was dubbed the "Father of Humanism" because of
his devotion or loyalty to Greek and Roman scrolls. Many worked for the Catholic Church and were in holy orders, like Petrarch, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, and thus had access to book copying workshops, such as Petrarch's disciple Salutati, the Chancellor of Florence.
In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the mid-15th century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations, possibly in addition to traditional scholastic
ones. Some of the highest officials of the Catholic Church were
humanists with the resources to amass important libraries. Such was Cardinal Basilios Bessarion, a convert to the Catholic Church from Greek Orthodoxy, who was considered for the papacy, and was one of the most learned scholars of his time. There were several 15th-century and early 16th-century humanist Popes one of whom, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II), was a prolific author and wrote a treatise on The Education of Boys. These subjects came to be known as the humanities, and the movement which they inspired is shown as humanism.
The migration waves of Byzantine Greek scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 greatly assisted the revival of Greek and Roman literature and science via their greater familiarity with ancient languages and works. They included Gemistus Pletho, George of Trebizond, Theodorus Gaza, and John Argyropoulos.
Italian humanism spread northward to France, Germany, the Low Countries, Poland-Lithuania, Hungary and England with the adoption of large-scale printing after 1500, and it became associated with the Reformation. In France, pre-eminent humanist Guillaume Budé (1467–1540) applied the philological methods of Italian humanism to the study of antique coinage and to legal history, composing a detailed commentary on Justinian's Code. Budé was a royal absolutist (and not a republican like the early Italian umanisti) who was active in civic life, serving as a diplomat for François I and helping to found the Collège des Lecteurs Royaux (later the Collège de France). Meanwhile, Marguerite de Navarre, the sister of François I, was a poet, novelist, and religious mystic who gathered around her and protected a circle of vernacular poets and writers, including Clément Marot, Pierre de Ronsard, and François Rabelais.
Many humanists were churchmen, most notably Pope Pius II, Sixtus IV, and Leo X, and there was often patronage of humanists by senior church figures.
Much humanist effort went into improving the understanding and
translations of Biblical and early Christian texts, both before and
after the Reformation, which was greatly influenced by the work of
non-Italian, Northern European figures such as Erasmus, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, William Grocyn, and Swedish Catholic Archbishop in exile Olaus Magnus.
The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy describes the rationalism of ancient writings as having tremendous impact on Renaissance scholars:
Here, one felt no weight of the
supernatural pressing on the human mind, demanding homage and
allegiance. Humanity—with all its distinct capabilities, talents,
worries, problems, possibilities—was the center of interest. It has been
said that medieval thinkers philosophised on their knees, but,
bolstered by the new studies, they dared to stand up and to rise to full
The rediscovery of classical philosophy and science would eventually
challenge traditional religious beliefs. In 1417, for example, Poggio Bracciolini discovered the manuscript of Lucretius, De rerum natura, which had been lost for centuries and which contained an explanation of Epicurean doctrine,
though at the time this was not commented on much by Renaissance
scholars, who confined themselves to remarks about Lucretius's grammar
Only in 1564 did French commentator Denys Lambin (1519–72)
announce in the preface to the work that "he regarded Lucretius's
Epicurean ideas as 'fanciful, absurd, and opposed to Christianity'."
Lambin's preface remained standard until the nineteenth century. Epicurus's unacceptable doctrine that pleasure was the highest good "ensured the unpopularity of his philosophy". Lorenzo Valla, however, puts a defense of epicureanism in the mouth of one of the interlocutors of one of his dialogues.
Trinkhaus regards Valla's "epicureanism" as a ploy, not seriously meant
by Valla, but designed to refute Stoicism, which he regarded together
with epicureanism as equally inferior to Christianity. Valla's defense, or adaptation, of Epicureanism was later taken up in The Epicurean by Erasmus, the "Prince of humanists:"
If people who live agreeably are Epicureans, none are more truly Epicurean
than the righteous and godly. And if it is names that bother us, no
one better deserves the name of Epicurean than the revered founder and
head of the Christian philosophy Christ, for in Greek epikouros means "helper." He alone, when the law of Nature was all but blotted out by sins, when the law of Moses incited to lists rather than cured them, when Satan
ruled in the world unchallenged, brought timely aid to perishing
humanity. Completely mistaken, therefore, are those who talk in their
foolish fashion about Christ's having been sad and gloomy in character
and calling upon us to follow a dismal mode of life. On the contrary,
he alone shows the most enjoyable life of all and the one most full of
The seven artes magicae or artes prohibitae, arts prohibited by canon law, as expounded by Johannes Hartlieb in 1456, their sevenfold partition reflecting that of the artes liberales and artes mechanicae, were: